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Python爬虫之BeautifulSoup库

2020-12-14 15:24 417 查看 https://www.cnblogs.com/hgzero

1. BeautifulSoup

1.1 解析库

1)Python标准库

# 使用方法
BeautifulSoup(markup, "html.parser")

# 优势
Python的内置标准库,执行速度适中,文档容错能力强

# 劣势
Python2.7.3 或者 python3.2.2 前的版本容错能力差

2)lxml HTML解析器

  • 绝大部分场景都应该使用lxml解析器
# 使用方法
BeautifulSoup(markup, "lxml")

# 优势
速度快,文档容错能力强

# 劣势
需要安装C语言库

3)lxml XML解析器

# 使用方法
BeautifulSoup(markup, "xml")

# 优势
速度快,唯一支持XML的解析器

# 劣势
需要安装C语言库

4)html5lib

# 使用方法
BeautifulSoup(markup, "html5lib")

# 优势
最好的容错性,以浏览器的方式解析文档,生成HTML5格式的文档

# 劣势
速度慢,不依赖外部扩展

1.2 基本使用

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml') # 使用lxml解析器
print(soup.prettify())    # 格式化代码,能自动将缺失的代码进行补全并进行容错处理
print(soup.title.string)  # 拿到title标签,并拿到其中的内容

2. 标签选择器

2.1 选择元素

可以直接通过  .标签名 的方式来选择标签

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were th
56c
ree little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title)        # 选择title标签,打印结果:<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
print(type(soup.title))  # 类型:<class 'bs4.element.Tag'>
print(soup.head)
print(soup.p) # 如果有多个匹配结果,那么它只会返回第一个

2.2 获取名称

获取标签的名称,如是p标签还是a标签等

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.title.name) # 获取标签名称

2.3 获取属性

可以通过 attrs["name"] 或者 标签["name"] 的方式来获取标签中name属性的值

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.attrs['name'])   # 获取p标签中name属性的值
print(soup.p['name'])         # 这样也可以获取

2.4 获取内容

可以通过 标签.string 的方式来获取标签中的内容

html = """
<ht
ad8
ml><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p clss="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.string)  # 获取p标签中的内容(只是获取字符内容):The Dormouse's story

2.5 嵌套选择

可以通过点  .  的方式来嵌套选择

html = """
<html><head><title>The Dormouse's story</title></head>
<body>
<p class="title" name="dromouse"><b>The Dormouse's story</b></p>
<p class="story">Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1"><!-- Elsie --></a>,
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a> and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>;
and they lived at the bottom of a well.</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.head.title.string)  # 获取head下面的title中的字符内容

2.6 子节点和子孙节点

1)子节点

  • 通过  标签.contents 可以获取标签中的所有子节点,保存为一个列表
  • 保存为列表
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.contents)  # 获取p标签中的所有子节点,保存为一个列表
  • 可以通过  标签.children  来获取标签中的所有子节点,保存为一个迭代器
  • 保存为迭代器
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.children)  # 获取p标签中的所有子节点,保存为一个迭代器
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.children):
print(i, child)

2)子孙节点

  • 可以通过  标签.descendants  来获取标签中的所有子孙节点,并保存为一个迭代器
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.p.descendants)   # 获取p标签中的所有子孙节点,保存为一个迭代器
for i, child in enumerate(soup.p.descendants):
print(i, child)

2.7 父节点和祖先节点

1)父节点

  • 通过  标签.parent  可以获取标签的父节点
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.a.parent)  # 获取a标签的父节点

2)祖先节点

  • 通过  标签.parents  可以获取标签的所有祖先节点
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.parents)))   # 获取a标签所有的祖先节点

2.8 兄弟节点

  • 通过  标签.next_siblings  可以获取标签后面的所有兄弟节点
  • 通过  标签.previous_siblings  可以获取标签前面的所有兄弟节点
html = """
<html>
<head>
<title>The Dormouse's story</title>
</head>
<body>
<p class="story">
Once upon a time there were three little sisters; and their names were
<a href="http://example.com/elsie" class="sister" id="link1">
<span>Elsie</span>
</a>
<a href="http://example.com/lacie" class="sister" id="link2">Lacie</a>
and
<a href="http://example.com/tillie" class="sister" id="link3">Tillie</a>
and they lived at the bottom of a well.
</p>
<p class="story">...</p>
"""
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.next_siblings)))     # 获取a标签后面的所有兄弟节点
print(list(enumerate(soup.a.previous_siblings))) # 获取a标签前面的所有兄弟节点

3. 标准选择器

3.1 find_all()

  • 使用语法:find_all(name, attrs, recursive, text, **kwargs)

1)name

  • 根据标签名来选择标签
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup1 = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup1.find_all('ul'))  # 找到所有匹配的结果,并以列表的形式返回
print(type(soup1.find_all('ul')[0]))

soup2 = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup2.find_all('ul'):
print(ul.find_all('li'))

2)attrs

  • 根据标签中的属性进行选择标签
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1" name="elements">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'id': 'list-1'}))    # 找到所有的标签属性中id=list-1的标签
print(soup.find_all(attrs={'name': 'elements'}))

soup2 = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup2.find_all(id='list-1'))      # 找到所有的标签属性中id=list-1的标签,和attrs类似,只不过不需要再传入字典了
print(soup2.find_all(class_='element')) # 如果和关键字冲突,则可以通过将属性后面加一个下划线,如class_

3)text

  • 根据文本的内容进行选择
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo&l
ad8
t;/li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find_all(text='Foo'))   # 根据文本的内容进行选择,选择文本中包含Foo的标签的所有内容

3.2 find()

  • find返回单个元素,find_all返回所有元素
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.find('ul'))   # 找到第一个ul标签
print(type(soup.find('ul')))
print(soup.find('page'))

3.3 find_parents() find_parent()

find_parents() 返回所有祖先节点,find_parent() 返回直接父节点。

3.4 find_next_siblings() find_next_sibling()

find_next_siblings()返回后面所有兄弟节点,find_next_sibling()返回后面第一个兄弟节点。

3.5 find_previous_siblings() find_previous_sibling()

find_previous_siblings()返回前面所有兄弟节点,find_previous_sibling()返回前面第一个兄弟节点。

3.6 find_all_next() find_next()

find_all_next()返回节点后所有符合条件的节点, find_next()返回第一个符合条件的节点。

3.7 find_all_previous() 和 find_previous()

find_all_previous()返回节点后所有符合条件的节点, find_previous()返回第一个符合条件的节点。

4. CSS选择器

4.1 css选择器基本使用

通过select() 直接传入CSS选择器即可完成选择

html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
print(soup.select('.panel .panel-heading'))  # 这是类选择器,class=xxx,中间的空格表示这是也是层级选择器
print(soup.select('ul li'))                  # 这是标签选择器,选择具体的标签,这里表示选择ul标签中的li标签
print(soup.select('#list-2 .element'))       # 这个id选择器,id=xxx
print(type(soup.select('ul')[0]))

soup2 = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup2.select('ul'):
print(ul.select('li'))

4.2 获取属性

  • TAG['id']
  • TAG.attr['id']
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for ul in soup.select('ul'):
print(ul['id'])         # 获取ul标签中id属性的值
print(ul.attrs['id'])   # 这两种写法等价

4.3 获取内容

  • TAG.get_text()
html='''
<div class="panel">
<div class="panel-heading">
<h4>Hello</h4>
</div>
<div class="panel-body">
<ul class="list" id="list-1">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
<li class="element">Jay</li>
</ul>
<ul class="list list-small" id="list-2">
<li class="element">Foo</li>
<li class="element">Bar</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
'''
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
soup = BeautifulSoup(html, 'lxml')
for li in soup.select('li'):
print(li.get_text())   # 获取标签中的文本

5. 总结

  1. 推荐使用 lxml 解析库,必要时使用 html.parser
  2. 标签选择筛选功能弱但是速度快
  3. 建议使用find()、find_all() 查询匹配单个结果或者多个结果
  4. 如果对CSS选择器熟悉建议使用select()
  5. 要记住常用的获取属性和文本值的方法

 

 

 

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