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python 的日志logging模块学习

2015-08-23 19:18 1191 查看
1.简单的将日志打印到屏幕

import logging

logging.debug(‘This is debug message’)

logging.info(‘This is info message’)

logging.warning(‘This is warning message’)

屏幕上打印:

WARNING:root:This is warning message

默认情况下,logging将日志打印到屏幕,日志级别为WARNING;

日志级别大小关系为:CRITICAL > ERROR > WARNING > INFO > DEBUG > NOTSET,当然也可以自己定义日志级别。

2.通过logging.basicConfig函数对日志的输出格式及方式做相关配置

import logging

logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG,

format=’%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s’,

datefmt=’%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S’,

filename=’myapp.log’,

filemode=’w’)

logging.debug(‘This is debug message’)

logging.info(‘This is info message’)

logging.warning(‘This is warning message’)

./myapp.log文件中内容为:

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:11] DEBUG This is debug message

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:12] INFO This is info message

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:13] WARNING This is warning message

logging.basicConfig函数各参数:

filename: 指定日志文件名

filemode: 和file函数意义相同,指定日志文件的打开模式,’w’或’a’

format: 指定输出的格式和内容,format可以输出很多有用信息,如上例所示:

%(levelno)s: 打印日志级别的数值

%(levelname)s: 打印日志级别名称

%(pathname)s: 打印当前执行程序的路径,其实就是sys.argv[0]

%(filename)s: 打印当前执行程序名

%(funcName)s: 打印日志的当前函数

%(lineno)d: 打印日志的当前行号

%(asctime)s: 打印日志的时间

%(thread)d: 打印线程ID

%(threadName)s: 打印线程名称

%(process)d: 打印进程ID

%(message)s: 打印日志信息

datefmt: 指定时间格式,同time.strftime()

level: 设置日志级别,默认为logging.WARNING

stream: 指定将日志的输出流,可以指定输出到sys.stderr,sys.stdout或者文件,默认输出到sys.stderr,当stream和filename同时指定时,stream被忽略

3.将日志同时输出到文件和屏幕

import logging

logging.basicConfig(level=logging.DEBUG,

format=’%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s’,

datefmt=’%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S’,

filename=’myapp.log’,

filemode=’w’)

#

定义一个StreamHandler,将INFO级别或更高的日志信息打印到标准错误,并将其添加到当前的日志处理对象

console = logging.StreamHandler()

console.setLevel(logging.INFO)

formatter = logging.Formatter(‘%(name)-12s: %(levelname)-8s %(message)s’)

console.setFormatter(formatter)

logging.getLogger(”).addHandler(console)

#

logging.debug(‘This is debug message’)

logging.info(‘This is info message’)

logging.warning(‘This is warning message’)

屏幕上打印:

root : INFO This is info message

root : WARNING This is warning message

./myapp.log文件中内容为:

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:11] DEBUG This is debug message

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:12] INFO This is info message

Sun, 24 May 2009 21:48:54 demo2.py[line:13] WARNING This is warning message

4.logging之日志回滚

import logging

from logging.handlers import RotatingFileHandler

#

定义一个RotatingFileHandler,最多备份5个日志文件,每个日志文件最大10M

Rthandler = RotatingFileHandler(‘myapp.log’, maxBytes=10*1024*1024,backupCount=5)

Rthandler.setLevel(logging.INFO)

formatter = logging.Formatter(‘%(name)-12s: %(levelname)-8s %(message)s’)

Rthandler.setFormatter(formatter)

logging.getLogger(”).addHandler(Rthandler)

#

从上例和本例可以看出,logging有一个日志处理的主对象,其它处理方式都是通过addHandler添加进去的。

logging的几种handle方式如下:

logging.StreamHandler: 日志输出到流,可以是sys.stderr、sys.stdout或者文件

logging.FileHandler: 日志输出到文件

日志回滚方式,实际使用时用RotatingFileHandler和TimedRotatingFileHandler

logging.handlers.BaseRotatingHandler

logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler

logging.handlers.TimedRotatingFileHandler

logging.handlers.SocketHandler: 远程输出日志到TCP/IP sockets

logging.handlers.DatagramHandler: 远程输出日志到UDP sockets

logging.handlers.SMTPHandler: 远程输出日志到邮件地址

logging.handlers.SysLogHandler: 日志输出到syslog

logging.handlers.NTEventLogHandler: 远程输出日志到Windows NT/2000/XP的事件日志

logging.handlers.MemoryHandler: 日志输出到内存中的制定buffer

logging.handlers.HTTPHandler: 通过”GET”或”POST”远程输出到HTTP服务器

由于StreamHandler和FileHandler是常用的日志处理方式,所以直接包含在logging模块中,而其他方式则包含在logging.handlers模块中,

上述其它处理方式的使用请参见python2.5手册!

5.通过logging.config模块配置日志

logger.conf

#

[loggers]

keys=root,example01,example02

[logger_root]

level=DEBUG

handlers=hand01,hand02

[logger_example01]

handlers=hand01,hand02

qualname=example01

propagate=0

[logger_example02]

handlers=hand01,hand03

qualname=example02

propagate=0

#

[handlers]

keys=hand01,hand02,hand03

[handler_hand01]

class=StreamHandler

level=INFO

formatter=form02

args=(sys.stderr,)

[handler_hand02]

class=FileHandler

level=DEBUG

formatter=form01

args=(‘myapp.log’, ‘a’)

[handler_hand03]

class=handlers.RotatingFileHandler

level=INFO

formatter=form02

args=(‘myapp.log’, ‘a’, 10*1024*1024, 5)

#

[formatters]

keys=form01,form02

[formatter_form01]

format=%(asctime)s %(filename)s[line:%(lineno)d] %(levelname)s %(message)s

datefmt=%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S

[formatter_form02]

format=%(name)-12s: %(levelname)-8s %(message)s

datefmt=

上例3:

import logging

import logging.config

logging.config.fileConfig(“logger.conf”)

logger = logging.getLogger(“example01”)

logger.debug(‘This is debug message’)

logger.info(‘This is info message’)

logger.warning(‘This is warning message’)

上例4:

import logging

import logging.config

logging.config.fileConfig(“logger.conf”)

logger = logging.getLogger(“example02”)

logger.debug(‘This is debug message’)

logger.info(‘This is info message’)

logger.warning(‘This is warning message’)

6.logging是线程安全的

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