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ansible变量vars/vars_files

donwtkl 2020-09-03 20:24 323 查看 https://blog.51cto.com/1343465

对于重复使用而且复杂的参数值,可以定义变量引用,便于管理和修改,也可以创建文件存放变量,引用变量文件即可

示例如下

[root@jack7-1 ansible]# tree .
.
├── ansible.cfg
├── backup
│   └── backup.sh
├── hosts
├── roles
├── vars ============>存放变量的目录
│   └── httpd.yml =========>存放变量的文件
└── work ===========================>工作目录
├── apache_config_1.yml
├── apache_config.yml
├── apache_create.yml
├── apache_remove.yml
变量写法要主要格式和缩进
[root@jack7-1 ansible]# cat vars/httpd.yml
#apache vars
apache:
conf: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
vhost: /etc/httpd/vhost
引用方法:
"{{apache.conf}}"

如下方式创建apache的虚拟主机:

需要注意的是对同一文件多次blockin时,marker很重要,否则会覆盖上次插入的内容

[root@jack7-1 ansible]# cat work/apache_config.yml

  • hosts: jack6-2
    remote_user: root
    vars_files:

    /etc/ansible/vars/httpd.yml
    tasks:
  • name: insert line
    blockinfile:
    path: "{{apache.conf}}"
    block: "Listen 8888\nInclude vhost/*.conf"
    insertafter: EOF
    marker: "#{mark} 8888"
  • name: cat
    shell: grep ^Include {{apache.conf}}
  • name: DocumentRoot
    file:
    path: "{{apache.droot}}"
    state: directory
  • name: insert block
    blockinfile:
    path: "{{apache.vconf}}"
    block: "<VirtualHost *:8888>\n\tDocumentRoot /data/www/html\n\tServerName myvhost.com\n\t<Directory /data/www/html>\n\t\tAllowOverride None\n\t\tRequire all granted\n\t\tSatisfy Any\n\t\tOrder allow,deny\n\t\tAllow from all\n\t</Directory>\n</VirtualHost>"
    insertbefore: BOF
    backup: yes
    notify: reload_httpd

  • meta: flush_handlers
  • name: insert content
    blockinfile:
    path: "{{apache.vhtml}}"
    block: "Hello my bro! Welcome to My Website."
    insertbefore: BOF
    create: yes
    marker: "#{mark} WHAT FCK"
    backup: yes

handlers:

  • name: reload_httpd
    service:
    name: httpd
    state: reloaded

###########################################################################
当我们需要使用testvar1的变量值时,则需要引用这个变量,如你所见,使用"{{变量名}}"可以引用对应的变量。

也可以定义多个变量,示例如下。

Shell
vars:
testvar1: testfile
testvar2: testfile2
1
2
3
vars:
testvar1: testfile
testvar2: testfile2

除了使用上述语法,使用YAML的块序列语法也可以定义变量,示例如下

Shell
vars:

  • testvar1: testfile
  • testvar2: testfile2
    1
    2
    3
    vars:
  • testvar1: testfile
  • testvar2: testfile2

在定义变量时,还能够以类似"属性"的方式定义变量,示例如下

  • hosts: test70
    remote_user: root
    vars:
    nginx:
    conf80: /etc/nginx/conf.d/80.conf
    conf8080: /etc/nginx/conf.d/8080.conf
    tasks: name: task1
    file:
    path: "{{nginx.conf80}}"
    state: touch
  • name: task2
    file:
    path: "{{nginx.conf8080}}"
    state: touch
  • hosts: test70
    remote_user: root
    vars:
    nginx:
    conf80: /etc/nginx/conf.d/80.conf
    conf8080: /etc/nginx/conf.d/8080.conf
    tasks: name: task1
    file:
    path: "{{nginx.conf80}}"
    state: touch
  • name: task2
    file:
    path: "{{nginx.conf8080}}"
    state: touch
    如上例所示,我定义了两个变量,两个变量的值对应两个nginx配置文件路径

当我们需要引用这两个变量时,有两种语法可用

语法一

Shell
"{{nginx.conf80}}"
1
"{{nginx.conf80}}"
语法二

Shell
"{{nginx['conf8080']}}"
1
"{{nginx['conf8080']}}"

而在上述后面的示例中引用变量时,变量被引用时如下,处于"开头的位置"

Shell
path: "{{nginx.conf80}}"
1
path: "{{nginx.conf80}}"
这种情况下,我们引用变量时必须使用双引号引起被引用的变量,否则会报语法错误

"vars"关键字和"vars_files"关键字可以同时使用,如下

Shell
vars:

  • conf90: /etc/nginx/conf.d/90.conf
    vars_files:
  • /testdir/ansible/nginx_vars.yml

    vars:

  • conf90: /etc/nginx/conf.d/90.conf
    vars_files:
  • /testdir/ansible/nginx_vars.yml
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