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.NET MVC5简介(五)管道处理模型IHttpModule

diezuo9326 2020-02-02 14:32 176 查看 https://blog.csdn.net/diezuo93

https://www.geek-share.com/detail/2399866700.html

IHttpModule

HTTPRuntime(运行时)。在一个控制台程序中,程序的入口是Program中的Main方法。那么,一个网站的入口在哪里呢?在最开始的ashx中,有个ProcessRequest方法,后来在WebForm中,在后台是一个不分类,继承自Page类,在Page_Load方法中去写代码。其实Page类型也有一个ProcessRequest的虚方法。

 

 

 都是这个ProcessRequest方法来处理请求的。在MVC中也是如此。在MVC中,任何一个Http请求,一定有一个IHttpHandler来处理,在这个接口中,定义了一个ProcessRequest方法。HttpApplication继承自IHttpHandler接口。任何一个Http请求就是一个HttpApplication对象来处理的,然后处理过程固定包含权限认证、缓存处理、Session处理、Cookie出库、生成html、输出客户端,与此同时,千千万万的开发者,又有各种各样的扩展诉求,任何一个环节都有可能扩展,如果是我们来设计,该怎么设计?

其实在MVC框架里面,用到的是观察者模式:

在HttpApplication类型,有这些事件:

//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs just before ASP.NET sends HTTP headers to the client.
public event EventHandler PreSendRequestHeaders;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the handler is selected to respond to the request.
public event EventHandler MapRequestHandler;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the application is disposed.
public event EventHandler Disposed;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs as the first event in the HTTP pipeline chain of execution when ASP.NET
//     responds to a request.
public event EventHandler BeginRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when a security module has established the identity of the user.
public event EventHandler AuthenticateRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when a security module has established the identity of the user.
public event EventHandler PostAuthenticateRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when a security module has verified user authorization.
public event EventHandler AuthorizeRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the user for the current request has been authorized.
public event EventHandler PostAuthorizeRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes an authorization event to let the caching modules
//     serve requests from the cache, bypassing execution of the event handler (for
//     example, a page or an XML Web service).
public event EventHandler ResolveRequestCache;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET bypasses execution of the current event handler and allows
//     a caching module to serve a request from the cache.
public event EventHandler PostResolveRequestCache;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs just before ASP.NET sends content to the client.
public event EventHandler PreSendRequestContent;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET has mapped the current request to the appropriate event handler.
public event EventHandler PostMapRequestHandler;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET has completed processing all the event handlers for the System.Web.HttpApplication.LogRequest
//     event.
public event EventHandler PostLogRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the managed objects that are associated with the request have been
//     released.
public event EventHandler RequestCompleted;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the request state (for example, session state) that is associated
//     with the current request has been obtained.
public event EventHandler PostAcquireRequestState;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs just before ASP.NET starts executing an event handler (for example, a
//     page or an XML Web service).
public event EventHandler PreRequestHandlerExecute;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when the ASP.NET event handler (for example, a page or an XML Web service)
//     finishes execution.
public event EventHandler PostRequestHandlerExecute;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs after ASP.NET finishes executing all request event handlers. This event
//     causes state modules to save the current state data.
public event EventHandler ReleaseRequestState;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET has completed executing all request event handlers and the
//     request state data has been stored.
public event EventHandler PostReleaseRequestState;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes executing an event handler in order to let caching
//     modules store responses that will be used to serve subsequent requests from the
//     cache.
public event EventHandler UpdateRequestCache;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET finishes updating caching modules and storing responses that
//     are used to serve subsequent requests from the cache.
public event EventHandler PostUpdateRequestCache;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs just before ASP.NET performs any logging for the current request.
public event EventHandler LogRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when ASP.NET acquires the current state (for example, session state) that
//     is associated with the current request.
public event EventHandler AcquireRequestState;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs as the last event in the HTTP pipeline chain of execution when ASP.NET
//     responds to a request.
public event EventHandler EndRequest;
//
// 摘要:
//     Occurs when an unhandled exception is thrown.
public event EventHandler Error;
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 这里用的是观察者模式,把固定的步骤直接写在handler里面,在步骤前后分别放一个事件,然后开发者可以对事件注册动作,等着请求进来了,然后就可以按照顺讯执行一下。这种设计是不是很完美?但是仍有不完美的地方,就是每个请求都要执行这些事件,太多管闲事了。在.NET Core中出现了中间件,比这种更加完美。后续再详细介绍。

请见下列代码

public class HttpProcessDemo
{
public class HttpApplicationDemo : IHttpHandler
{
public bool IsReusable => true;

public event Action BeginRequest;
public event Action EndRequest;
public event Action PreSomething1Handler;
public event Action PostSomething1Handler;
public event Action PreSomething2Handler;
public event Action PostSomething2Handler;
public event Action PreSomething3Handler;
public event Action PostSomething3Handler;
public event Action PreSomething4Handler;
public event Action PostSomething4Handler;
public event Action PreSomething5Handler;
public event Action PostSomething5Handler;
public event Action PreSomething6Handler;
public event Action PostSomething6Handler;
public void ProcessRequest(HttpContext context)
{
this.BeginRequest?.Invoke();

this.PreSomething1Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 1");
this.PostSomething1Handler?.Invoke();

this.PreSomething2Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 2");
this.PostSomething2Handler?.Invoke();
this.PreSomething3Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 3");
this.PostSomething3Handler?.Invoke();
this.PreSomething4Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 4");
this.PostSomething4Handler?.Invoke();

this.PreSomething5Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 5");
this.PostSomething5Handler?.Invoke();
this.PreSomething6Handler?.Invoke();
Console.WriteLine("Something 6");
this.PostSomething6Handler?.Invoke();

this.EndRequest?.Invoke();
}
//任何请求进来,只能是 123456
//事件升级后,可以在程序启动时,实例化HttpApplicationDemo后,可以给事件注册动作,请求再进来时,处理不仅是123456了,还有多个事件里面的动作
}
View Code

对HttpApplication里面的事件进行动作注册,就叫IHttpModule。

自定义一个HttpModule+配置文件注册,然后任何一个请求都会执行Init里面注册给Application事件的动作。

 

 

 

public class CustomHttpModule : IHttpModule
{
public void Dispose()
{
Console.WriteLine();
}

public event EventHandler CustomHttpModuleHandler;

/// <summary>
/// 注册动作
/// </summary>
/// <param name="context"></param>
public void Init(HttpApplication application)
{
application.BeginRequest += (s, e) =>
{
this.CustomHttpModuleHandler?.Invoke(application, null);
};
//application.EndRequest += (s, e) =>
//{
//    HttpContext.Current.Response.Write("CustomHttpModule.EndRequest");
//};
#region 为每一个事件,都注册了一个动作,向客户端输出信息
application.AcquireRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AcquireRequestState        "));
application.AuthenticateRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AuthenticateRequest        "));
application.AuthorizeRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "AuthorizeRequest           "));
application.BeginRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "BeginRequest               "));
application.Disposed += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "Disposed                   "));
application.EndRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "EndRequest                 "));
application.Error += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "Error                      "));
application.LogRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "LogRequest                 "));
application.MapRequestHandler += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "MapRequestHandler          "));
application.PostAcquireRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAcquireRequestState    "));
application.PostAuthenticateRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAuthenticateRequest    "));
application.PostAuthorizeRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostAuthorizeRequest       "));
application.PostLogRequest += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostLogRequest             "));
application.PostMapRequestHandler += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostMapRequestHandler      "));
application.PostReleaseRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostReleaseRequestState    "));
application.PostRequestHandlerExecute += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostRequestHandlerExecute  "));
application.PostResolveRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostResolveRequestCache    "));
application.PostUpdateRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PostUpdateRequestCache     "));
application.PreRequestHandlerExecute += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreRequestHandlerExecute   "));
application.PreSendRequestContent += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreSendRequestContent      "));
application.PreSendRequestHeaders += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "PreSendRequestHeaders      "));
application.ReleaseRequestState += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "ReleaseRequestState        "));
application.RequestCompleted += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "RequestCompleted           "));
application.ResolveRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "ResolveRequestCache        "));
application.UpdateRequestCache += (s, e) => application.Response.Write(string.Format("<h1 style='color:#00f'>来自MyCustomModule 的处理,{0}请求到达 {1}</h1><hr>", DateTime.Now.ToString(), "UpdateRequestCache         "));
#endregion
}
}
View Code

访问下页面,就是这样的结果:

 

 

 正常流程下,会按照顺序执行19个事件。

学完HttpModule,我们可以做点什么有用的扩展?

  任何一个请求都会执行HttpModuleInit里面注册给Application的事件

  1、日志-性能监控

  2、权限

  3、缓存

  4、页面加点东西

  5、请求过滤

  6、MVC就是一个Module的扩展

不适合的:不是针对全部请求的,就不太适合用Module,因为有性能损耗

  1、多语言,根据Cookie信息去查询不同的数据做不同的展示,如果是全部一套处理,最后HttpModule拦截+处理,适合httpModule

  2、跳转到不同界面,也不合适

  3、防盗链,针对一类的后缀来处理的,而不是全部请求---判断----再防盗链

在HttpModule里面发布一个CustomHttpModuleHandler,在Global增加一个动作CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler(配置文件module名称_module里面事件名称),请求响应时,该事件会执行

protected void CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
this.logger.Info("this is CustomHttpModuleBingle_CustomHttpModuleHandler");
}

HttpModule是对HttpApplication的事件动作注册动作,Global是对HttpModule里面的事件注册动作。

 

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/taotaozhuanyong/p/11581464.html

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