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git使用<一>:常用本地操作

googlemi 2017-11-23 22:21 104 查看
编写软件,时常免不了修修改改,修改过后的代码不一定比前面好,甚至产生新问题,或者有时无意间修改了某行代码,导致出错,这种情况都是很常见的,如果此时没有版本管理,如果是小软件可能没什么影响,如果代码量很大,就是个很头疼的问题,git的出现正是为了解决这个问题的,对于码农来说,简直是神器,下面简单记录下。

基本操作:
1.仓库初始化:
直接进入文件夹,输入git init
2.添加文件:
一个文件(比如x文件):git add x
多个文件(比如x,y文件):git add x y
整个文件夹文件:git add *
3.提交文件:
一行注释:git commit -m "you comment"
多行注释:git commit -m ",然后按下回车,输入内容,然后继续输入内容,输入完之后输入"
4.查看状态:
git status
5.查看日志:
查看版本日志:git log
查看所有操作日志:git reflog
6.查看异同:
仅仅查看:git diff
制作patch:git diff > diff.patch
7.版本回滚与切换:
先执行git log确定要回滚到的版本,然后使用git reset --hard进行回滚;如果回滚后突然又想回到之前的版本,怎么办呢?这个时候只需要再次查看日志,不过需要使用git reflog,然后再次git reset --hard就可以恢复到之前的版本

8.配置信息

git config --global  --list// 查看配置信息

git config --global user.name "myname" // 配置用户名

git config --global user.email  "test@gmail.com" // 配置邮箱

操作实例:

ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git init        # 初始化
Initialized empty Git repository in /samba/TMP/tst/.git/
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ vi tst.txt
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git status    # 查看状态
On branch master

Initial commit

Untracked files:
(use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)

tst.txt

nothing added to commit but untracked files present (use "git add" to track)
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git add tst.txt    # 添加文件
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git commit -m "    # 提交文件
> first commit
> "
[master (root-commit) 767ba26] first commit
file changed, 1 insertion(+)
create mode 100644 tst.txt
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git log            # 查看日志
commit 767ba26cc39de73ab2848680058a339341599fe8
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:11:56 2017 +0800

first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ vi tst.txt
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git diff            # 查看修改
diff --git a/tst.txt b/tst.txt
index d00491f..48082f7 100644
--- a/tst.txt
+++ b/tst.txt
@@ -1 +1 @@
-1
+12
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git status        # 再次查看状态
On branch master
Changes not staged for commit:
(use "git add <file>..." to update what will be committed)
(use "git checkout -- <file>..." to discard changes in working directory)

modified:   tst.txt

no changes added to commit (use "git add" and/or "git commit -a")
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git add tst.txt    # 再次添加修改后的文件
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git commit -m "second commit" # 提交修改
[master be932f8] second commit
file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git log            # 查看日志
commit be932f8fee8cfa266e0c2051905ff428d2f8bdb5
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:16:21 2017 +0800

second commit

commit 767ba26cc39de73ab2848680058a339341599fe8
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:11:56 2017 +0800

first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git reflog        # 查看所有操作日志
be932f8 HEAD@{0}: commit: second commit
767ba26 HEAD@{1}: commit (initial): first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git reset --hard 767ba26 # 回滚到第一次提交
HEAD is now at 767ba26 first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git log                    # 查看日志
commit 767ba26cc39de73ab2848680058a339341599fe8
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:11:56 2017 +0800

first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git reflog        # 查看所有操作日志
767ba26 HEAD@{0}: reset: moving to 767ba26
be932f8 HEAD@{1}: commit: second commit
767ba26 HEAD@{2}: commit (initial): first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git reset --hard be932f8    # 回滚到第二次提交
HEAD is now at be932f8 second commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$ git log
commit be932f8fee8cfa266e0c2051905ff428d2f8bdb5
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:16:21 2017 +0800

second commit

commit 767ba26cc39de73ab2848680058a339341599fe8
Author: Your Name <you@example.com>
Date:   Thu Aug 24 22:11:56 2017 +0800

first commit
ubuntu@ubuntu:tst$
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