您的位置:首页 > 编程语言 > Python开发

Selenium+Python :WebDriver设计模式( Page Object )

2017-05-24 15:24 197 查看

Page Object 设计原理

Page Object设计模式是Selenium自动化测试项目的最佳设计模式之一,强调测试、逻辑、数据和驱动相互分离。

Page Object模式是Selenium中的一种测试设计模式,主要是将每一个页面设计为一个Class,其中包含页面中需要测试的元素(按钮,输入框,标题等),这样在Selenium测试页面中可以通过调用页面类来获取页面元素,这样巧妙的避免了当页面元素id或者位置变化时,需要改测试页面代码的情况。当页面元素id变化时,只需要更改测试页Class中页面的属性即可。

它的好处如下:

  • 集中管理元素对象
  • 集中管理一个page内的公共方法
  • 后期维护方便

Page Object 的对象

  1. WebDriver封装
      这里是对Selenium的封装,完成封装以后的基本封装代码。
  2. Page 基类
      设计了一个基本的Page类,以便所有的页面进行继承,该类标明了一个sub page类的基本功能和公共的功能。
  3. Sub Pages(s)子类
      具体的页面的类,定义了某个具体的页面的功能。
  4. Tests 类
      这部分描述的是具体的测试用例。
  5. 定义Test Suite
      多个测试用例添加在一个Test套件里面,一起执行。
  6. 定义Test Runner
      设计测试的Runner,开启整个测试,并且对测试的结果生成HTML测试报告,并通过邮件发送到指定邮箱。
  7. 定义测试的主入口
      定义测试的主要入口类,代码的入口

HTML测试报告

HTML测试报告需要引入HTMLTestRunner

from ranzhiWeekend import HTMLTestRunner

HTMLTestRunner是基于Python2.7的,我们的课程讲义基于Python3.x,那么需要对这个文件做一定的修改。

测试的示例代码如下

# 声明一个测试套件
suite = unittest.TestSuite()
# 添加测试用例到测试套件
suite.addTest(RanzhiTests("test_ranzhi_login"))

# 创建一个新的测试结果文件
buf = open("./result.html", "wb")

# 声明测试运行的对象
runner = HTMLTestRunner.HTMLTestRunner(stream=buf,
title="Ranzhi Test Result",
description="Test Case Run Result")
# 运行测试,并且将结果生成为HTML
runner.run(suite)

# 关闭文件输出
buf.close()

集成测试报告

使用邮件发送HTML测试报告的脚本如下

# 打开测试报告结果
f = open("./result.html", "rb")

# 将测试结果放到邮件的主体中
mailBody = f.read()
# 关闭测试结果的文件
f.close()

# 声明一个邮件对象,用刚刚得到的邮件主体
msg = MIMEText(mailBody, "html", "utf-8")
# 设置邮件的主题
msg["subject"] = Header("Automation Test Result", "utf-8")

# 创建一个SMTP服务对象
# simple message transfer protocol
# 简单的消息转移协议
smtpMail = smtplib.SMTP()

# 连接SMTP的服务器
smtpMail.connect("mail.51testing.com")

# 登录SMTP的服务器
smtpMail.login("liutingli@51testing.com", "123456789")

# 使用SMTP的服务器发送邮件
smtpMail.sendmail("liutingli@51testing.com", targetEmail, msg.as_string())

# 退出SMTP对象
smtpMail.quit()

自动化测试框架示例

WebDriver封装

# coding=utf-8
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.support.select import Select

class AutomateDriver(object):
"""
a simple demo of selenium framework tool
"""

def __init__(self):

driver = webdriver.Firefox()
try:
self.driver = driver
except Exception:
raise NameError("Firefox Not Found!")

def clearCookies(self):
"""
clear all cookies after driver init
"""
self.driver.delete_all_cookies()

def refreshBrowser(self):
self.driver.refresh()

def maximizeWindow(self):
self.driver.maximize_window()

def navigate(self, url):
self.driver.get(url)

def quitBrowser(self):
self.driver.quit()

def closeBrowser(self):
self.driver.close()

def getElement(self, selector):
"""
to locate element by selector
:arg
selector should be passed by an example with "i,xxx"
"x,//*[@id='langs']/button"
:returns
DOM element
"""
if ',' not in selector:
return self.driver.find_element_by_id(selector)
selector_by = selector.split(',')[0]
selector_value = selector.split(',')[1]

if selector_by == "i" or selector_by == 'id':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_id(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "n" or selector_by == 'name':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_name(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "c" or selector_by == 'class_name':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_class_name(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "l" or selector_by == 'link_text':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_link_text(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "p" or selector_by == 'partial_link_text':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "t" or selector_by == 'tag_name':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_tag_name(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "x" or selector_by == 'xpath':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_xpath(selector_value)
elif selector_by == "s" or selector_by == 'selector_selector':
element = self.driver.find_element_by_css_selector(selector_value)
else:
raise NameError("Please enter a valid type of targeting elements.")

return element

def type(self, selector, text):
"""
Operation input box.

Usage:
driver.type("i,el","selenium")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
el.clear()
el.send_keys(text)

def click(self, selector):
"""
It can click any text / image can be clicked
Connection, check box, radio buttons, and even drop-down box etc..

Usage:
driver.click("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
el.click()

def selectByIndex(self, selector, index):
"""
It can click any text / image can be clicked
Connection, check box, radio buttons, and even drop-down box etc..

Usage:
driver.select_by_index("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
Select(el).select_by_index(index)

def clickByText(self, text):
"""
Click the element by the link text

Usage:
driver.click_text("新闻")
"""
self.getElement('p,' + text).click()

def submit(self, selector):
"""
Submit the specified form.

Usage:
driver.submit("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
el.submit()

def executeJs(self, script):
"""
Execute JavaScript scripts.

Usage:
driver.js("window.scrollTo(200,1000);")
"""
self.driver.execute_script(script)

def getAttribute(self, selector, attribute):
"""
Gets the value of an element attribute.

Usage:
driver.get_attribute("i,el","type")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
return el.getAttribute(attribute)

def getText(self, selector):
"""
Get element text information.

Usage:
driver.get_text("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
return el.text

def getDisplay(self, selector):
"""
Gets the element to display,The return result is true or false.

Usage:
driver.get_display("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
return el.is_displayed()

def getTitle(self):
'''
Get window title.

Usage:
driver.get_title()
'''
return self.driver.title

def getUrl(self):
"""
Get the URL address of the current page.

Usage:
driver.get_url()
"""
return self.driver.current_url

def acceptAlert(self):
'''
Accept warning box.

Usage:
driver.accept_alert()
'''
self.driver.switch_to.alert.accept()

def dismissAlert(self):
'''
Dismisses the alert available.

Usage:
driver.dismissAlert()
'''
self.driver.switch_to.alert.dismiss()

def implicitlyWait(self, secs):
"""
Implicitly wait. All elements on the page.

Usage:
driver.implicitly_wait(10)
"""
self.driver.implicitly_wait(secs)

def switchFrame(self, selector):
"""
Switch to the specified frame.

Usage:
driver.switch_to_frame("i,el")
"""
el = self.getElement(selector)
self.driver.switch_to.frame(el)

def switchDefaultFrame(self):
"""
Returns the current form machine form at the next higher level.
Corresponding relationship with switch_to_frame () method.

Usage:
driver.switch_to_frame_out()
"""
self.driver.switch_to.default_content()

def openNewWindow(self, selector):
'''
Open the new window and switch the handle to the newly opened window.

Usage:
driver.open_new_window()
'''
original_windows = self.driver.current_window_handle
el = self.getElement(selector)
el.click()
all_handles = self.driver.window_handles
for handle in all_handles:
if handle != original_windows:
self.driver._switch_to.window(handle)

Base Page类

class RanzhiBasePage():
def __init__(self, driver, baseUrl):
"""
构造方法
:param driver: 封装好的webdriver
:param baseUrl: 然之系统的基本url http://【localhost:808】/ranzhi/www
"""

self.baseUrl = baseUrl
self.driver = driver

def openPage(self, url):
"""
打开然之系统的页面,通过拼接URL的方式
:param url: /sys/index.html
:return:
"""
self.driver.navigate(self.baseUrl + url)

Sub Page类

from ranzhiWeekend.ranzhi_base_page import RanzhiBasePage

class RanzhiSubLoginPage(RanzhiBasePage):
def __init__(self, driver, baseUrl):
"""

:param driver:
:param baseUrl:
"""
# 调用其 基类 RanzhiBasePage的 构造函数
# 实现 基类 的构造函数的功能
super().__init__(driver, baseUrl)
self.loginPageUrl = "/sys/user-login.html"
self.mainPageUrl = "/sys/index.html"
self.driver.clearCookies()

def login(self, userName, password):
self.openPage(self.loginPageUrl)
# self.driver.clearCookies()
self.driver.implicitlyWait(5)
self.driver.type("account", userName)
self.driver.type("password", password)
self.driver.click("submit")

def getMainPage(self):
return self.baseUrl + self.mainPageUrl

Tests Case 类

import unittest
from time import sleep

from ranzhiWeekend.automate_driver import AutomateDriver
from ranzhiWeekend.ranzhi_sub_login_page import RanzhiSubLoginPage

"""
1. 导入 unittest
2. 继承 unittest.TestCase
3. 写用例 方法以 test 开头
4. 考虑使用 setUp() 和 tearDown()
"""

class RanzhiTests(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
"""
开始每个测试前的准备事项
:return:
"""
self.autoDriver = AutomateDriver()
self.baseUrl = "http://localhost:808/ranzhi/www"

def tearDown(self):
"""
结束每个测试后的清理工作
:return:
"""
self.autoDriver.quitBrowser()

def test_ranzhi_login(self):
"""
测试用例:测试然之登录
:return:
"""
# 新建然之的页面对象
loginPage = RanzhiSubLoginPage(self.autoDriver, self.baseUrl)

# 利用然之的页面对象进行登录
loginPage.login("admin", "admin")
sleep(2)
# 断言 是否登录成功
self.assertEqual(loginPage.getMainPage(), self.autoDriver.getUrl(), u"登录失败")

Tests Runner类

import smtplib
import unittest
from email.header import Header
from email.mime.text import MIMEText

from ranzhiWeekend import HTMLTestRunner
from ranzhiWeekend.ranzhi_tests_0605 import RanzhiTests

class RanzhiTestRunner():

def runTest(self):
"""
运行测试用例
:return:
"""

# 声明一个测试套件
suite = unittest.TestSuite()
# 添加测试用例到测试套件
suite.addTest(RanzhiTests("test_ranzhi_login"))

# 创建一个新的测试结果文件
buf = open("./result.html", "wb")

# 声明测试运行的对象
runner = HTMLTestRunner.HTMLTestRunner(stream=buf,
title="Ranzhi Test Result",
description="Test Case Run Result")
# 运行测试,并且将结果生成为HTML
runner.run(suite)

# 关闭文件输出
buf.close()

def sendEmail(self, targetEmail):
"""
发送邮件
:param targetEmail:
:return:
"""

# 打开测试报告结果
f = open("./result.html", "rb")

# 将测试结果放到邮件的主体中
mailBody = f.read()
# 关闭测试结果的文件
f.close()

# 声明一个邮件对象,用刚刚得到的邮件主体
msg = MIMEText(mailBody, "html", "utf-8")
# 设置邮件的主题
msg["subject"] = Header("Automation Test Result", "utf-8")

# 创建一个SMTP服务对象
# simple message transfer protocol
# 简单的消息转移协议
smtpMail = smtplib.SMTP()

# 连接SMTP的服务器
smtpMail.connect(“***.******.com")

# 登录SMTP的服务器
smtpMail.login(“*******@*****.com", “*********")

# 使用SMTP的服务器发送邮件
smtpMail.sendmail(“*******@********.com", targetEmail, msg.as_string())

# 退出SMTP对象
smtpMail.quit()

main函数入口

if __name__ == "__main__":
# 实例化一个runner
runner = RanzhiTestRunner()

# 执行测试
runner.runTest()

# 发送测试结果
runner.sendEmail(“********@******.com")
内容来自用户分享和网络整理,不保证内容的准确性,如有侵权内容,可联系管理员处理 点击这里给我发消息
标签: