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java TCP/IP Socket编程

u9497786 2016-03-24 18:14 190 查看
前一段时间刚做了个java程序和网络上多台机器的c程序通讯的项目,遵循的是TCP/IP协议,用到了java的Socket编程。网络通讯是java的强项,用TCP/IP协议可以方便的和网络上的其他程序互通消息。先来介绍下网络协议:
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol 传输控制协议
Internet Protocol 互联网协议
UDP
User Datagram Protocol 用户数据协议连接协议:
分为:
面向连接协议: Connection Oriented Protocol
非连接协议: Connectionless Protocol 1).面向连接协议是指两台电脑在传输数据前,先会建立一个专属的连接。就如电信局的交换机会为打电话双方提供专属连接一样。
Internet上的面向连接协议就是TCP/IP
特点:确认回应;分组序号;流量控制。
TCP/IP属于可靠性传输,适合不容许有传输错误的网络程序设计使用 2).非连接协议:无专属连接,无分组,容错,距离短,可同时对多台电脑进行数据传输
Internet上的非连接协议就是UDP TCP在网络通信上有极强的生命力,例如远程连接(Telnet)和文件传输(FTP)都需要不定长度的数据被可靠地传输。相比之下UDP操作简单,而且仅需要较少的监护,因此通常用于局域网高可靠性的分散系统中client/server应用程序。
Socket 是程序与网络间的一种接口,大部分网络应用程序都是点对点的,所谓点就是服务器端和客户端所执行的程序。Socket是用来接收和传送分组的一个端点。java的Socket编程要用到java.net包,最常用的是net包下的6个类:InetAddress(互联网协议 (IP) 地址)类,Socket(套接字)类,ServerSocket(套接字服务器)类,DatagramSocket(发送和接收数据报包的套接字)类,DatagramPacket(数据报包)类,MulticastSocket(多播数据报套接字类用于发送和接收 IP 多播包)类,其中InetAddress、Socket、ServerSocket类是属于TCP面向连接协议,DatagramSocket、DatagramPacket和MulticastSocket类则属于UDP非连接协议的传送类。本项目因为使用TCP/IP协议,主要用到Socket和ServerSocket类项目代码如下
Java代码 01.package com.sse.monitor.serv;
02.
03.import java.io.DataInputStream;
04.import java.io.IOException;
05.import java.io.InputStream;
06.import java.io.OutputStream;
07.import java.io.BufferedOutputStream;
08.
09.import java.net.Socket;
10.import java.net.UnknownHostException;
11.import java.util.ArrayList;
12.
13.import com.sse.monitor.bean.Message;
14.import com.sse.monitor.bean.MessageHead;
15.import com.sse.monitor.bean.ResponseMessage;
16.import com.sse.monitor.form.ListenerInvoke;
17.import com.sse.monitor.form.MainForm;
18.import com.sse.monitor.util.SwingUtils;
19.
20./**
21. * Socket套接字工厂,对外接口是静态方法 SocketFactory.request(String, String, String, int)
22. * Copyright: Copyright (c) 2008
23. * Company: conserv
24. * @author cuishen
25. * @version 1.3
26. */
27.public class SocketFactory {
28. private Socket socket = null;
29. private String targetIpAddress = null;
30. private int targetPort = 0;
31. private static SocketFactory sf = new SocketFactory();
32.
33. public SocketFactory() {
34. }
35.
36. /**
37. * 建立一条TCP/IP连接
38. * @param targetIpAddress String 目标ip地址
39. * @param targetPort String 目标端口
40. * @throws IOException
41. */
42. private void connect(String targetIpAddress, int targetPort) throws IOException {
43. setTargetIpAddress(targetIpAddress);
44. setTargetPort(targetPort);
45. if(socket == null)
46. socket = new Socket(targetIpAddress, targetPort);
47. }
48.
49. /**
50. * 这是对外接口。发送命令,接收反馈和接收message放两个线程,
51. * 发送命令并接收反馈是短连接,所以每次执行成功后,将销毁socket并终止线程,
52. * 接收message是长连接,所以可能会new出n个线程,建议对接收message的线程做缓存
53. * @param commandType String 命令类型
54. * @param commandContent String 命令内容
55. * @param targetIP String 目标ip
56. * @param targetPort int 目标端口
57. */
58. public static void request(String commandType, String commandContent, String targetIP, int targetPort) {
59. if (commandType.equalsIgnoreCase(MessageFactory.SCAN_COMMAND)) {
60. sf.new GetMessageSocketThread(commandType, commandContent, targetIP, targetPort);
61. } else {
62. sf.new RequestSocketThread(commandType, commandContent, targetIP, targetPort);
63. }
64. }
65.
66. /**
67. * 发送请求
68. * @param commandType String 命令类型
69. * @param commandContent String 命令内容
70. * @param targetIp String 目标ip
71. */
72. private void sendRequest(String commandType, String commandContent, String targetIp) {
73. OutputStream os = null;
74. BufferedOutputStream bs = null;
75. try {
76. os = socket.getOutputStream();
77. bs = new BufferedOutputStream(os);
78. char[] message = MessageFactory.makeRequestMessage(targetIp, commandType, commandContent, MessageFactory.COMMAND_TRADE_CODE, MessageFactory.RIGHT_COMMAND, MessageFactory.MESSAGE_END_FLAG);
79. for (int i = 0; i < message.length; i++)
80. bs.write(new String(message).getBytes(), i, 1);
81. bs.flush();
82. SwingUtils.appendLog(MainForm.jTextArea, "发送请求:'" + commandType + "' '" + commandContent + "' '" + targetIp + "'", ReadConfig.commandStateShowLineCount);
83. } catch (IOException e) {
84. SwingUtils.appendLog(MainForm.jTextArea, "Error!!! 发送请求:'" + commandType + "' '" + commandContent + "' '" + targetIp + "'失败!! " + e.getMessage(), ReadConfig.commandStateShowLineCount);
85. e.printStackTrace();
86. } catch (Exception e) {
87. e.printStackTrace();
88. } finally {
89. }
90. }
91.
92. /**
93. * 获得反馈
94. *
95. * @return 如果成功获得反馈,则返回true;否则返回false
96. */
97. private boolean getResponse() {
98. InputStream is = null;
99. DataInputStream di = null;
100. boolean returnFlag = false;
101. try {
102. is = socket.getInputStream();
103. di = new DataInputStream(is);
104. byte[] temp = new byte[1];
105. int flag = 0;
106. ArrayList tempByteList = new ArrayList();
107. int i = 0;
108. while (flag != -1) {
109. i++;
110. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
111. if (flag != -1)
112. tempByteList.add(temp);
113. if (i == 38)
114. break;
115. }
116. if (i == 1) {
117. SwingUtils.Error("未收到response!!!");
118. return false;
119. }
120. MessageHead messageHead = MessageFactory.readHead(tempByteList);
121.
122. SwingUtils.appendLog(MainForm.jTextArea, "收到 response", ReadConfig.commandStateShowLineCount);
123.
124. tempByteList = new ArrayList();
125. i = 0;
126. while (flag != -1) {
127. i++;
128. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
129. if (flag != -1)
130. tempByteList.add(temp);
131. if (i == 26)
132. break;
133. }
134. byte[] length = new byte[4];
135. di.read(length);
136. int len = Integer.parseInt(new String(length, MessageFactory.DEFAULT_CHAR_SET).trim());
137. flag = 0;
138. for (int j = 0; j < (len + 37); j++) {
139. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
140. if (flag == -1)
141. break;
142. tempByteList.add(temp);
143. }
144.
145. ResponseMessage rm = MessageFactory.readResponseMessage(tempByteList, len);
146.
147. if (messageHead.getErrorCode().equals(MessageFactory.SUCCESS))
148. returnFlag = true;
149. else
150. SwingUtils.Error("errorCode: " + messageHead.getErrorCode() + "; content: " + rm.getCommandContent());
151. } catch (IOException e) {
152. e.printStackTrace();
153. } finally {
154. }
155. return returnFlag;
156. }
157.
158. /**
159. * 分发消息的方法,将消息按进程名发送到对应的消息缓存
160. *
161. * 消息缓存ListenerInvoke.messageMap,key = machineName +
162. * '|' + programName + '|' + processId, value = messageList
163. * 存放messageMap里面的键名的List -- ListenerInvoke.messageMapKeyList
164. * 进程状态缓存ListenerInvoke.processStateMap, key = machineName + '|' +
165. * programName + '|' + processId, value = String
166. *
167. * @param message Message
168. */
169. private void distributeMess(Message message) {
170. String machineName = message.getMachineName();
171. String programName = message.getProgramName();
172. String processId = message.getProcessId();
173. String content = message.getContent();
174. String key = machineName + '|' + programName + '|' + processId;
175. key = key.trim();
176. ArrayList messageList = null;
177. if (ListenerInvoke.messageMap.get(key) == null) {
178. synchronized (ListenerInvoke.messageMap) {
179. if (ListenerInvoke.messageMap.get(key) == null) {
180. messageList = new ArrayList();
181. messageList.add(content);
182. ListenerInvoke.messageMap.put(key, messageList);
183. }
184. }
185. } else {
186. messageList = (ArrayList) ListenerInvoke.messageMap.get(key);
187. synchronized (messageList) {
188. if (ListenerInvoke.messageMap.get(key) != null) {
189. messageList.add(content);
190. if (!ReadConfig.threadDeleteMessCacheOrFIFO
191. && messageList.size() >= ReadConfig.messageCacheSizeLimit)
192. messageList.remove(0);
193. }
194. }
195. }
196. if (!ListenerInvoke.messageMapKeyList.contains(key)) {
197. synchronized (ListenerInvoke.messageMapKeyList) {
198. if (!ListenerInvoke.messageMapKeyList.contains(key))
199. ListenerInvoke.messageMapKeyList.add(key);
200. }
201. }
202. }
203.
204. /**
205. * 接收message
206. * @return Message
207. */
208. private boolean getMessage() {
209. InputStream is = null;
210. DataInputStream di = null;
211. Message message = null;
212. try {
213. if (this.socket == null) return false;
214. is = this.socket.getInputStream();
215. if (is == null) return false;
216. di = new DataInputStream(is);
217. byte[] temp = new byte[1];
218. int flag = 0;
219. ArrayList tempByteList = new ArrayList();
220. int i = 0;
221. while (flag != -1) {
222. i++;
223. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
224. if (flag != -1)
225. tempByteList.add(temp);
226. if (i == 38)
227. break;
228. }
229. if (i == 1) return false;
230.
231. tempByteList = new ArrayList();
232. i = 0;
233. while (flag != -1) {
234. i++;
235. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
236. if (flag != -1)
237. tempByteList.add(temp);
238. if (i == 74)
239. break;
240. }
241. byte[] length = new byte[4];
242. di.read(length);
243. int len = Integer.parseInt(new String(length,
244. MessageFactory.DEFAULT_CHAR_SET).trim());
245. flag = 0;
246. for (int j = 0; j < len; j++) {
247. flag = di.read(temp = new byte[1]);
248. if (flag == -1)
249. break;
250. tempByteList.add(temp);
251. }
252. message = MessageFactory.readMessage(tempByteList, len);
253. SwingUtils.appendLog(MainForm.jTextArea, "收到新 Message",
254. ReadConfig.commandStateShowLineCount);
255. distributeMess(message);// 分发message
256. } catch (IOException e) {
257. e.printStackTrace();
258. } finally {
259. }
260. return true;
261. }
262.
263. /**
264. * 负责发送请求接收反馈的内部线程类,每new一个RequestSocketThread线程,
265. * 就new一个socket,建立一条专属连接,成功接收反馈后将销毁socket,终止线程。
266. * 将发送请求,接收反馈放进内部线程处理,是为了防止套接字阻塞造成主线程挂死。
267. * @author cuishen
268. * @version 1.2
269. */
270. class RequestSocketThread implements Runnable {
271. private SocketFactory socketFactory;
272. private String commandType = null;
273. private String commandContent = null;
274. private String targetIP = null;
275. Thread t;
276.
277. public RequestSocketThread(String commandType, String commandContent, String targetIP, int targetPort) {
278. this.socketFactory = new SocketFactory();
279. try {
280. this.socketFactory.connect(ReadConfig.targetIpAddress, ReadConfig.targetPort);
281. } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
282. SwingUtils.Error("主机 IP 地址无法确定,无法建立连接! targetIP=" + ReadConfig.targetIpAddress + ", targetPort=" + ReadConfig.targetPort);
283. e.printStackTrace();
284. } catch (IOException e) {
285. SwingUtils.Error("访问被拒绝,无法建立连接,请检查网络! targetIP=" + ReadConfig.targetIpAddress + ", targetPort=" + ReadConfig.targetPort);
286. e.printStackTrace();
287. }
288. this.commandType = commandType;
289. this.commandContent = commandContent;
290. this.targetIP = targetIP;
291. t = new Thread(this);
292. t.start();
293. }
294.
295. public void run() {
296. this.socketFactory.sendRequest(commandType, commandContent, targetIP);
297. this.socketFactory.getResponse();
298. stopThread();
299. }
300.
301. public void stopThread() {
302. try {
303. this.commandType = null;
304. this.commandContent = null;
305. this.targetIP = null;
306. socketFactory.closeSocket();
307. socketFactory = null;
308. this.t.join(100);
309. } catch (InterruptedException e) {
310. e.printStackTrace();
311. } finally {
312. t = null;
313. }
314. }
315. }
316.
317. /**
318. * 负责接收message的内部线程类,每new一个GetMessageSocketThread线程,
319. * 就new一个socket,建立一条专属TCP/IP连接,getMessage是长连接,所以建议
320. * 将该线程放入缓存方便管理
321. * @author cuishen
322. * @version 1.2
323. */
324. class GetMessageSocketThread implements Runnable {
325. private SocketFactory socketFactory;
326. private String commandType = null;
327. private String commandContent = null;
328. private String targetIP = null;
329. Thread t;
330. private boolean flag = false;
331. private boolean ifGetResponse = true;
332. private boolean ifGetMessage = true;
333. private boolean ifSendRequest = true;
334. private boolean ifCycle = true;
335.
336. public GetMessageSocketThread(String commandType, String commandContent, String targetIP, int targetPort) {
337.
338. this.socketFactory = new SocketFactory();
339. try {
340. this.socketFactory.connect(ReadConfig.targetIpAddress, ReadConfig.targetPort);
341. } catch (UnknownHostException e) {
342. SwingUtils.Error("主机 IP 地址无法确定,无法建立连接! targetIP="
343. + ReadConfig.targetIpAddress + ", targetPort="
344. + ReadConfig.targetPort);
345. e.printStackTrace();
346. } catch (IOException e) {
347. SwingUtils.Error("访问被拒绝,无法建立连接,请检查网络! targetIP="
348. + ReadConfig.targetIpAddress + ", targetPort="
349. + ReadConfig.targetPort);
350. e.printStackTrace();
351. }
352. this.commandType = commandType;
353. this.commandContent = commandContent;
354. this.targetIP = targetIP;
355. t = new Thread(this);
356. t.start();
357. }
358.
359. public void run() {
360. while (ifCycle) {
361. if (ifSendRequest) {
362. this.socketFactory.sendRequest(commandType, commandContent, targetIP);
363. ifSendRequest = false;
364. }
365. if (ifGetResponse) {
366. flag = socketFactory.getResponse();
367. ifGetResponse = false;
368. }
369. if (flag && ifGetMessage && socketFactory.socket != null) {
370. if (!socketFactory.getMessage()) {
371. try {
372. Thread.sleep(ReadConfig.getMessageThreadSleep);
373. } catch (InterruptedException e) {
374. e.printStackTrace();
375. }
376. }
377. }
378. }
379. }
380.
381. public void stopThread() {
382. try {
383. this.commandType = null;
384. this.commandContent = null;
385. this.targetIP = null;
386. ifGetMessage = false;
387. ifCycle = false;
388. socketFactory.closeSocket();
389. socketFactory = null;
390. this.t.join(100);
391. } catch (InterruptedException e) {
392. e.printStackTrace();
393. } finally {
394. t = null;
395. }
396. }
397. }
398.
399. /**
400. * 关闭套接字
401. */
402. private void closeSocket() {
403. try {
404. if (!socket.isClosed())
405. socket.close();
406. socket = null;
407. } catch (IOException e) {
408. e.printStackTrace();
409. }
410. }
411.
412. /**
413. * @return the targetIpAddress
414. */
415. public String getTargetIpAddress() {
416. return targetIpAddress;
417. }
418.
419. /**
420. * @param targetIpAddress
421. * the targetIpAddress to set
422. */
423. public void setTargetIpAddress(String targetIpAddress) {
424. this.targetIpAddress = targetIpAddress;
425. }
426.
427. /**
428. * @return the targetPort
429. */
430. public int getTargetPort() {
431. return targetPort;
432. }
433.
434. /**
435. * @param targetPort
436. * the targetPort to set
437. */
438. public void setTargetPort(int targetPort) {
439. this.targetPort = targetPort;
440. }
441.
442.}
以上是Socket编程,ServerSocket在项目里没有用到,但是我也写了个包装类供参考Java代码 01.package com.sse.monitor.serv;
02.
03.import java.io.IOException;
04.import java.net.ServerSocket;
05.import java.net.Socket;
06.
07./**
08. * 服务器套接字工厂
09. * Copyright: Copyright (c) 2008
10. * @author cuishen
11. * @version 1.0
12. */
13.public class ServerSocketFactory {
14. private static ServerSocket server;
15. private static Socket client;
16. private boolean ifRunServer = true;
17.
18. public void runServer(int port) throws IOException {
19. //本地建立一个套接字服务器,等待其他机器访问
20. server = new ServerSocket(port);
21. System.out.println("Socket Server Start...");
22. new ServerThread();
23. }
24.
25.
26. class ServerThread implements Runnable {
27. Thread t;
28.
29. public ServerThread() {
30. t = new Thread(this);
31. t.start();
32. }
33.
34. public void run() {
35. try {
36. while(ifRunServer) {
37. if(client == null) client = server.accept();
38. if(client != null) //getMessage();
39. Thread.sleep(ReadConfig.serverThreadSleep);
40. }
41. } catch (InterruptedException e) {
42. e.printStackTrace();
43. }
44. catch (IOException e) {
45. e.printStackTrace();
46. }
47. }
48. public void stopThread() {
49. try {
50. ifRunServer = false;
51. this.t.join(100);
52. } catch (InterruptedException ex) {
53. System.out.println("socket服务器线程终止异常!!!");
54. } finally {
55. t = null;
56. }
57. }
58. }
59.}
Socket编程就是运用Socket或者ServerSocket类搭配线程来使用(由于TCP/IP属于可靠性传输,不会丢包)。可能会因为在发送请求或者接受消息时Socket阻塞而导致主线程挂死,因此发送请求、接收消息的方法要放进子线程里处理;对于同一目标ip和端口,在同一个子线程里只能new一个Socket,也就是说,要对同一地址建立多条连接,就要开启多个线程。而且注意连接可能会因作用不同分长连接和短连接,要分别处理,本项目中发送请求和接受message就分别属于短连接和长连接,因此分别开发了RequestSocketThread和GetMessageSocketThread两个子线程区分对待。可以同时开发个Message类来封装打包和解包消息的方法(项目中开发MessageFactory.java),方便调用
标签:  java TCP socket