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[zz]NoSQL对比:Cassandra vs MongoDB vs CouchDB vs Redis vs Riak vs HBase vs Membase vs Neo4j

zhangzhang 2013-01-09 23:56 78 查看

Cassandra vs MongoDB vs CouchDB vs Redis vs Riak vs HBase vs Membase vs Neo4j

While SQL databases are insanely useful tools, their monopoly of ~15 years is coming to an end.And it was just time: I can't even count the things that were forced into relational databases,but never really fitted them.

But the differences between NoSQL databases are much bigger than it ever was between oneSQL database and another. This means that it is a bigger responsibility onsoftware architectsto choose the appropriate one for a project right at the beginning.

In this light, here is a comparison ofCassandra,Mongodb,CouchDB,Redis,Riak,Membase,Neo4j andHBase:


Written in: C++

Main point: Retains some friendly properties of SQL. (Query, index)

License: AGPL (Drivers: Apache)

Protocol: Custom, binary (BSON)

Master/slave replication (auto failover with replica sets)

Sharding built-in

Queries are javascript expressions

Run arbitrary javascript functions server-side

Better update-in-place than CouchDB

Uses memory mapped files for data storage

Performance over features

Journaling (with --journal) is best turned on

On 32bit systems, limited to ~2.5Gb

An empty database takes up 192Mb

GridFS to store big data + metadata (not actually an FS)

Has geospatial indexing

Best used:If you need dynamic queries. If you prefer to define indexes, not map/reduce functions. If you need good performance on a big DB. If you wanted CouchDB, but your data changes too much, filling up disks.

For example:For most things that you would do with MySQL or PostgreSQL, but having predefined columns really holds you back.

Riak (V1.0)

Written in: Erlang & C, some Javascript

Main point: Fault tolerance

License: Apache

Protocol: HTTP/REST or custom binary

Tunable trade-offs for distribution and replication (N, R, W)

Pre- and post-commit hooks in JavaScript or Erlang, for validation and security.

Map/reduce in JavaScript or Erlang

Links & link walking: use it as a graph database

Secondary indices: but only one at once

Large object support (Luwak)

Comes in "open source" and "enterprise" editions

Full-text search, indexing, querying with Riak Search server (beta)

In the process of migrating the storing backend from "Bitcask" to Google's "LevelDB"

Masterless multi-site replication replication and SNMP monitoring are commercially licensed

Best used:If you want something Cassandra-like (Dynamo-like), but no way you're gonna deal with the bloat and complexity. If you need very good single-site scalability, availability and fault-tolerance, but you're ready to pay for multi-site replication.

For example:Point-of-sales data collection. Factory control systems. Places where even seconds of downtime hurt. Could be used as a well-update-able web server.

CouchDB (V1.1.1)

Written in: Erlang

Main point: DB consistency, ease of use

License: Apache

Protocol: HTTP/REST

Bi-directional (!) replication,

continuous or ad-hoc,

with conflict detection,

thus, master-master replication. (!)

MVCC - write operations do not block reads

Previous versions of documents are available

Crash-only (reliable) design

Needs compacting from time to time

Views: embedded map/reduce

Formatting views: lists & shows

Server-side document validation possible

Authentication possible

Real-time updates via _changes (!)

Attachment handling

thus, CouchApps (standalone js apps)

jQuery library included

Best used:For accumulating, occasionally changing data, on which pre-defined queries are to be run. Places where versioning is important.

For example:CRM, CMS systems. Master-master replication is an especially interesting feature, allowing easy multi-site deployments.

Redis (V2.4)

Written in: C/C++

Main point: Blazing fast

License: BSD

Protocol: Telnet-like

Disk-backed in-memory database,

Currently without disk-swap (VM and Diskstore were abandoned)

Master-slave replication

Simple values or hash tables by keys,

but complex operations like ZREVRANGEBYSCORE.

INCR & co (good for rate limiting or statistics)

Has sets (also union/diff/inter)

Has lists (also a queue; blocking pop)

Has hashes (objects of multiple fields)

Sorted sets (high score table, good for range queries)

Redis has transactions (!)

Values can be set to expire (as in a cache)

Pub/Sub lets one implement messaging (!)

Best used:For rapidly changing data with a foreseeable database size (should fit mostly in memory).

For example:Stock prices. Analytics. Real-time data collection. Real-time communication.

HBase (V0.92.0)

Written in: Java

Main point: Billions of rows X millions of columns

License: Apache

Protocol: HTTP/REST (also Thrift)

Modeled after Google's BigTable

Uses Hadoop's HDFS as storage

Map/reduce with Hadoop

Query predicate push down via server side scan and get filters

Optimizations for real time queries

A high performance Thrift gateway

HTTP supports XML, Protobuf, and binary

Cascading, hive, and pig source and sink modules

Jruby-based (JIRB) shell

Rolling restart for configuration changes and minor upgrades

Random access performance is like MySQL

A cluster consists of several different types of nodes

Best used:Hadoop is probably still the best way to run Map/Reduce jobs on huge datasets. Best if you use the Hadoop/HDFS stack already.

For example:Analysing log data.

Neo4j (V1.5M02)

Written in: Java

Main point: Graph database - connected data

License: GPL, some features AGPL/commercial

Protocol: HTTP/REST (or embedding in Java)

Standalone, or embeddable into Java applications

Full ACID conformity (including durable data)

Both nodes and relationships can have metadata

Integrated pattern-matching-based query language ("Cypher")

Also the "Gremlin" graph traversal language can be used

Indexing of nodes and relationships

Nice self-contained web admin

Advanced path-finding with multiple algorithms

Indexing of keys and relationships

Optimized for reads

Has transactions (in the Java API)

Scriptable in Groovy

Online backup, advanced monitoring and High Availability is AGPL/commercial licensed

Best used:For graph-style, rich or complex, interconnected data. Neo4j is quite different from the others in this sense.

For example:Social relations, public transport links, road maps, network topologies.


Written in: Java

Main point: Best of BigTable and Dynamo

License: Apache

Protocol: Custom, binary (Thrift)

Tunable trade-offs for distribution and replication (N, R, W)

Querying by column, range of keys

BigTable-like features: columns, column families

Has secondary indices

Writes are much faster than reads (!)

Map/reduce possible with Apache Hadoop

All nodes are similar, as opposed to Hadoop/HBase

Best used:When you write more than you read (logging). If every component of the system must be in Java. ("No one gets fired for choosing Apache's stuff.")

For example:Banking, financial industry (though not necessarily for financial transactions, but these industries are much bigger than that.) Writes are faster than reads, so one natural niche is real time data analysis.


Written in: Erlang & C

Main point: Memcache compatible, but with persistence and clustering

License: Apache 2.0

Protocol: memcached plus extensions

Very fast (200k+/sec) access of data by key

Persistence to disk

All nodes are identical (master-master replication)

Provides memcached-style in-memory caching buckets, too

Write de-duplication to reduce IO

Very nice cluster-management web GUI

Software upgrades without taking the DB offline

Connection proxy for connection pooling and multiplexing (Moxi)

Best used:Any application where low-latency data access, high concurrency support and high availability is a requirement.

For example:Low-latency use-cases like ad targeting or highly-concurrent web apps like online gaming (e.g. Zynga).

Of course, all systems have much more features than what's listed here. I only wanted to list the key points that I base my decisions on. Also, development of all are very fast, so things are bound to change. I'll do my best to keep this list updated.

-- Kristof